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          Application and development of induction heating technology at home and abroad

          Date:2022-03-30 17:02:31       Number of views:

          Application and development of induction heating technology at home and abroad

          As a new subject, induction heating has been really applied in recent 30 years. In today's energy shortage, its importance is particularly prominent. Technology is improving rapidly and its use is becoming more and more widely. After the reform and opening up, China began to develop induction heating technology, and its application prospect is very promising.

          Induction heating characteristics

          (1) The heating temperature is high, and it is non-contact heating.

          (2) High heating efficiency.

          (3) Fast heating speed.

          (4) The temperature is easy to control.

          (5) It can be heated locally.

          (6) Easy to realize automatic control.

          (7) The working environment is good, almost free of noise and dust.

          (8) Less land occupation and high production efficiency.

          (9) It can heat workpieces with complex shapes.

          (10) The workpiece is easy to heat evenly and the product quality is good.

          (11) Electromagnetic stirring plays a role in smelting solution. The composition of molten metal can be adjusted evenly, and the solution temperature is uniform without local high temperature. Less metal burning loss is more important for smelting rare metals.

          Advantages of induction heating

          The first is low energy consumption. The actual billet heating thermal efficiency of induction smelting furnace and induction diathermy furnace can reach 65% ~ 75%, while that of flame furnace and various chamber furnaces is only about 30%.

          Second, this type of furnace does not need the necessary preheating process such as coal furnace, gas furnace and resistance furnace. It has the advantages of convenient use and simple operation. It can work continuously for a long time, and can also start or stop work at any time according to needs. It can also work fully manually, fully automatic or semi-automatic, which can have an absolute advantage in production scheduling.

          Third, there is no need to heat the workpiece as a whole, but local heating can be selected, so the power consumption is less, the deformation of the workpiece is small, and the heating speed is fast, which can make the workpiece reach the required temperature in a very short time, so as to reduce the heating defects such as oxidation and decarburization on the workpiece surface to a very low degree. It can be used for steel materials such as steel, tungsten and molybdenum, and can also be used for the heating or heat treatment of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and niobium with strong chemical activity.

          Fourth, induction heating equipment can be installed on the production line, which is easy to realize the automation and mechanization of the production line, easy to manage, effectively reduce transportation, save manpower and improve production efficiency.

          Fifth, induction heating also has the advantages of high power utilization, environmental protection and energy saving, safety and reliability and good working environment.

          Based on the above advantages, when electric energy replaces non renewable energy such as coal, oil and gas and is gradually becoming a dominant energy in the heating field, induction heating is increasingly widely used in smelting, heating and other fields. The application of electric heating, especially induction heating, has a very wide application prospect, and induction heating equipment manufacturers have broad development space.

          Application in automobile manufacturing

          The vigorous development of the auto industry has brought unprecedented development opportunities to the auto parts industry. Induction heating technology is also being more and more widely used in the field of automobile manufacturing.

          In terms of melting, casting is a metal processing method that is easy to form. The casting method can be used to make various parts with different sizes and complex shapes on the automobile. It can be said that in the development of the automobile industry, everything can be made full use of, and almost all casting processes and methods can do their best in the automobile industry. The smelting processes mainly used in the production of cast automobile parts at home and abroad include cupola smelting process, medium frequency induction furnace smelting process and cupola medium frequency induction furnace duplex smelting process. Because of its technical advantages, induction smelting furnace is also being widely used in the casting industry.

          In terms of heating, according to statistics, the parts of the former Soviet Union with induction heat treatment in the automotive industry have accounted for 40% ~ 45% of the parts with heat treatment. With the development of induction heating technology, its application and development degree are self-evident.

          Induction heating technology is mainly used in the following fields in the automotive industry:

          (1) Melting of metals.

          (2) Heating of forging blank.

          (3) Heat treatment of auto parts.

          (4) Induction heating curing of automobile parts after bonding.

          (5) Induction heating semi-solid forming.

          (6) Induction heating assembly.

          (7) Induction heating brazing.

          Current situation of induction heating abroad

          With the development of power semiconductor devices and the continuous development of power electronic technology, the appearance of induction heating device also changes with each passing day, especially in the volume, quality and performance of the device. For example, compared with the electronic tube type frequency conversion device, the transistor type frequency conversion device with the same capacity has a volume reduction of 2 / 3, a weight reduction of 2 / 3, a cooling water saving of 1 / 2, a power consumption saving of 1 / 3, an efficiency increase of 35%, a longer service life, more safe and reliable, easy to realize automatic control, which is conducive to improving heating efficiency and quality, less maintenance workload, and can be used and opened at any time. The technology development and application of induction heating devices in industrial developed countries such as Germany, the United States, Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Spain, Belgium and Russia are in the forefront of the world.

          Domestic development and current situation

          The application of induction heating technology in China began in the 1950s. After the reform and opening up, it is mainly used in machine tool, automobile, tractor and other manufacturing industries. Induction heating focuses on workpiece surface quenching, while smelting and diathermy are less used. Almost all induction heating technologies come from the former Soviet Union and the Czech Republic. In the 1980s, Zhejiang University independently developed the first parallel thyristor medium frequency power supply and promoted it to the whole country.

          In the 1990s, some foreign induction furnace companies directly came to China to set up factories, such as Yingda induction heating company and bile company in the United States, competing with domestic manufacturers in the same industry. Their products have high technical content, large power supply, complete brands, large furnace tonnage and large production line scale, occupying a large part of the domestic market. Only their equipment price is high (the domestic same-sex energy products are about 1 / 5 of its price), which gives domestic manufacturers a certain market development space.

          In terms of domestic induction heating, it is also divided into "southern style" and "Northern Style" technology and product competition. "Nanpai" is represented by Zhenwu, Sida, Zhaoli and other companies; "Beipai" is represented by Xi'an induction heating company. Among these manufacturers, Xi'an Boda Electric Furnace Co., Ltd., Xi'an electric furnace Research Institute Co., Ltd., Xi'an PENGYUAN heavy electric furnace factory, Xi'an Electromechanical Research Institute, Shaanxi Haiyi, Xi'an automation and Huali, etc.

          Development trend of induction heating device

          The induction heating device consists of two parts, one is the AC power supply that provides energy, also known as variable frequency power supply, and the other is the induction coil and mechanical structure that complete the energy conversion of electromagnetic induction, which is called induction furnace. Variable frequency power supply can be divided into power frequency, intermediate frequency and high frequency.

          (1) High frequency heating equipment

          It has a set of device to convert power frequency 50Hz AC into high-frequency (70000 ~ 1000000hz) electric energy. It usually adopts electronic tube high-frequency generator.

          (2) Medium frequency heating equipment

          There is also a set of device to convert power frequency 50Hz into medium frequency (500 ~ 10000 Hz) electric energy, usually medium frequency generator (low power factor) and thyristor frequency converter.

          (3) Power frequency induction heating equipment

          The power frequency of the inductor is the same as that of the power grid, i.e. 50Hz, so it can directly absorb energy from the power grid. The fly in the ointment is that the power factor is too low.

          With the development of market demand, the development of induction heating devices shows that the power supply becomes high-frequency with the large capacity of power electronic power devices, and the control simulation of electronic technology devices develops to digitization and automatic control to intelligence. The development trend of induction heating devices presents the following characteristics:

          (1) The power supply tends to be high frequency and large capacity

          The frequency band of induction heating power supply mainly adopts thyristor; The ultrasonic band mainly adopts IGBT; The high frequency band used to be sit, but now it mainly develops MOSFET power supply. The power supply using IGCT also began to appear. The need of high-frequency power supply gives birth to new power devices, which in turn promote the development of high-frequency power supply. The large capacity of induction heating power supply, such as tens of megawatts and hundreds of megawatts, can be realized.

          (2) Induction heating devices tend to be mechanized and automatic

          In recent years, with the rapid development of mechatronics, computer, information and control, equipment automation, new materials and new processes, the processes of casting, forging and heat treatment tend to be digital and precise. The demand trend reflected in heating is: digital manufacturing is integrated into casting and forging process, including heating and smelting equipment; The short process production of casting and forging requires to reduce the waste of resources; The production of large castings and forgings requires industrial energy conservation; Cleaner production under automatic control.

          Therefore, under the characteristics of energy conservation and environmental protection, induction heating equipment has the trend of large-scale, automation and intelligent control according to the market demand.

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